娛樂城-畢業論文范文英語專業(英語專業大學畢業論文范文)-百家樂

娛樂城畢業論文范文英語專業
畢業論文范文英語專業Abstract: Classroom teaching is the main way for students to learn English. But in senior high school, a lots of probelms still exsit in the English teaching especially in the teaching of reading and writing. In this paper, the importance and methods of reading and writing will be further discussed. Key words: reading writing techniques Introduction: Classes should be learner-centered, with meaningful, functional activities, often, classes begin by finding out what the students don’t know. These classes operate on the assumption that there is a great deal of information that students lack and that the teacher and textbooks will impact that information to the students. Teachers who hold this assumption view students as plants waiting passively to be fed and watered. But I think the students should be regarded as explorers, active learners who bring a great deal to the learning process and at the same time, draw from their environment as they develop new understandings. The basic principle will be used in the teaching of reading and writing. Section One—— How to teach reading I. Why teach readingThere are many reasons why getting students to read English texts is an important part of the teacher’s job. In the first place, many of them want to be able to read texts in English either for their careers, for study purposes or simply for pleasure. Anything we can do to make reading easier for them must be a good idea. Reading texts provide good models for English writing, provide opportunities to study language vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, and the way to construct sentences, paragraphs and texts. Lastly, good reading texts can introduce interesting topics, stimulate discussion, excite imaginative responses and be the springboard for well-rounded, fascinating lessons. The last but not the least, students must read widely because only a fraction of knowledge about the world can come from other experiences in their short lives.II. What kind of reading should students do? When the teachers give reading class to students, they should notice a balance—-a balance to be struck between real English on the one hand and the students’ capabilities and interests on the other. There is some authentic written material which beginner students can understand to some degree: menus, timetables, signs and basic instructions, for example, and, where appropriate, teachers can use these. But for longer prose, teachers can offer their students texts, which, while being like English, are nevertheless written or adapted especially for their level. Anyway, th娛樂城 私帶e materials to be read should be interesting and meaningful. Teachers should become better acquainted with books written specially for teenagers and dealing with their problems.III. What are the principles behind the teaching of reading? i) Permit Students To Read No one has learned to swim by practicing the skills of backstrokes, flutter kicks or treading water while staying on the edge of the swimming pool. Yet, in the teaching of reading teachers often do just that. Rather than let the students into “the water”, teachers keep them in skills books learning rules about letters, syllables or definitions of words rather than letting them into the book itself, permitting them to be immersed in the language which comes from the authors as the readers try to reconstruct the written message.is8 娛樂城i) Encourage students to respond to the content of a reading text, not just to the languageOf course, it is important to study reading texts for the way they use language, how many paragraphs they contain and how many times they use relative clauses. But the meaning, the message of the text, is much more important. Teachers should help students understand that the main reason to read is for them. They have to have their own purpose to read and reading must make sense, they have to find ways of doing something about it. They should be encouraged either to reread or to continue reading to gain meaning. But they must realize that the meaning is not in the teacher, but in the interaction between the reader and author. Students should be encouraged to ask themselves repeatedly, “Does this make sense to me?” Students should be encouraged to reject and to be intolerant of reading materials that do not make sense. iii) Encourage students to guess or predict Readers’ guesses or predictions are based on the cumulative information and syntactic structure they have been learning as they have been reading. Therefore, their guesses are more often than not appropriate to the materials. Students have to realize that risk taking in reading is appropriate; that using context to decide what words mean體驗金200 is a proficient reading strategy and that they have the language sense to make appropriate guesses which can fit both the grammatical and semantic sense of what they are reading. iv) Match the task to the topic Once a decision has been taken about what kind of reading text the students are going to read, teachers need to choose good reading tasks—the right kind of questions and useful puzzles, etc. Asking boring and inappropriate questions can undermine the most interesting text; the most commonplace passage can be made really exciting with imaginative and challenging tasks. Working in groups, the English teacher and students take turns asking each other questions following the reading. The teacher may ask, “ What is the significance of the character’s age?” These questions require inferences based on details from the reading text. Section Two——How to teach writing (Developing correctness in students’ writing) “Students learn to write by writing, and they learn to write correctly by writing, revising, and proofreading their own work”—with some help or direction from the teacher when it is necessary. They do not learn to write correctly by studying about writing or doing isolated workbook exercises unrelated to their own writing. So, the most important technique a teacher can use to guide students toward grammatically correct writing is to let them write, let them write things related to their own experiences. There is no limit to the kinds of text the teacher can ask students to write. Teachers’ decisions, though, should based on how much language the students know, what their interests are. “Do I read a paper and ignore all punctuation, what good is that for students We spend hours at night with papers—I’m not sure the students get as much from it as the time I spend on it.” These comments by senior high school English teachers discussing the process of marking student papers reflect the dissatisfaction and frustration of many teachers over the problem of dealing with the errors in student writing—–the obvious mistakes in spelling, punctuation—-Traditionally, teachers have worked to correct errors in two ways: by teaching grammatically correctness through exercise in grammar texts; by pointing out all errors when making student papers. Most students find it very dispiriting if they get a piece of written work back and it is covered in red ink, underlings and crossing-out. It is a powerful visual statement of the fact that their written English is terrible. Of course, some pieces of written work are completely full of mistakes, but even in these cases, the teacher has to achieve a balance between being accurate and truthful on the one hand and treating students sensitively and sympathetically on the other. Some techniques can be used in dealing with the errors in student papers: i) Selectivity Rather than engage in intensive error-correction when responding to student writing, teachers are encouraged to adopt a more moderate approach to error. If the teacher over-corrects the students’ mistakes, the students would be likely to focus on errors instead of ideas. Students are more likely to grow as writers when the teacher’s primary purpose in reading student papers is to respond to content. However, if attention to content and correctness are combined when making papers, it is more helpful to select one or two kinds of errors the individual student is making than to point out every error in the paper. The teacher can identify a selected error, show an example or two on the student paper, and either explain the correct form or direct the student to a handbook for further explanation. It is always worth writing a comment at the end of a piece of written work —–anything from “Well done” to “This is a good story, but you must look again at your use of past tenses—see X grammar book page xx.” ii) Error-analysis Another method for working with student error, one that can be especially fruitful for teachers, is to approach it from an analytic perspective. Teachers, as error-analyst, look for patterns in the errors of an individual student, tries to discover how the mistake arrived at the mistakes by analyzing the error (Lack of knowledge about a certain grammatical point; A careless one or a mis-learned rule?), and plans strategies accordingly. iii) Publish Student Writing The final basic strategy is publishing. Students need a reason for laboring over a draft until it is perfect; the urge to see oneself in print can be a powerful drive toward revision and proofreading. Conclusion: As teachers to the students who are in senior high school, they should learn to turn students’ hard work toward supporting the language strengths students already have, proving students with a feeling of success, finding materials and planning classroom experiences will turn students on to reading and writing, the reading and writing will develop with much greater ease than it does at the present time.

英語專業大學畢業論文范文
英語專業大學畢業論文范文論文題目:淺BEC考試對高職英語測試設計的借鑒作用摘要:本文根據BEC中級考試的交際性語言測試特征,并結合高職英語測試設計的目標和重點,從考試內容和題型設計兩個方面提出了對高職英語測試的參考建議。  關鍵詞:BEC考試;交際性測試;高職英語測試一、BEC及其交際性測試特征(一)BEC考試概況BEC是劍橋大學考試中心為非英語國家人員的國際商務活動需要而專門設計的一項測試,尤其注重語言的交際功能。其目的是考查應試者在具體的商務環境中實際應用英語的能力,考查其能否正確的理解、處理工作中的問題。BEC考試內容以“需求分析”為理論基礎,測試學生在實際交際活動中完成任務的能力。考試根據語言學習中聽、說、讀、寫這四項基本能力,設計了閱讀、寫作、聽力及口語四部分,針對不同語言水平的受試者,BEC分為初級、中級和高級三個等級。(二)交際性測試特征早期的語言測試受結構主義語言學影響,認為語言是由語音、詞匯、語法等語言系統構成的元素,多數采用題型有多項選擇、語法填空等分離性的測試方式,此類測試雖能保證語言測試的可信度,但卻忽略了語言的整體性和內部各元素間的相互作用。20世紀80年代后期,交際性語言測試發展成為一股強大的理論潮流,沖擊了早期的語言測試模型。測試研究人員開始注重考查受試者在一定語境中運用語言進行有效交際的能力。在1990年,美國當代著名應用語言學家Lyle.F.Bachman提出交際語言能力模型(Communicativelanguage ability model)理論,認為交際語言能力是指語言知識能力與語言使用場景的特征結合起來,創造并解釋其意義的一種能力。交際性測試相對于傳統測試具有以下幾個明顯特點:(1)重視需求分析。(2)具有真實性,認為測試應該從交際的真實性(real-life authenticity)和情景的真實性(interactionalauthenticity)兩個方面來定論。(3)該測試強調語境與情景的重要作用。(4)交際性測試在語言篇的基礎上將聽說讀寫四項技能和考點做出了綜合處理,不僅限于傳統分離性的測試方法。(5)由于交際性測試衡量的是應試者的表現可否能滿足現實生活交際需求,所以它按照標準參照性(criterion-referenced)尺度來評定應試者的能力,重視主觀性評判。(三)BEC交際性測試特征的體現BEC測試在很大程度上體現了交際性測試中所涵蓋的內容、交際情景和功能。劍橋大學地方考試委員會曾對非英語國家人員進行商務活動的種種需求進行大量調查研究,根據總結的目標行為(work-related“can-do”statement)制定了一套考試大綱,考查應試者的英語語言能力。BEC測試的規范內容充分體現了交際性測試的特征,內容規范主要涵蓋測試的內容、方法、目的、用途、時間長度、試卷構成及all rights reserved評分標準等多方面。下文以《劍橋BEC真題集(中級)》(2011)為例,對其內容和題型進行分析。1.BEC中級考試的內容分析。BEC考試的內容是以實際工作中的商務活動為載體,評估應試者的語言能力。通過閱讀、寫作、聽力及口語四種方式,還原商務活動中的實際情景,來確保測試真實性。閱讀材料均來自真實素材,涵蓋面廣,主要有公司簡介、工作崗位責任說明、事實報告及商務禮儀等。閱讀部分體現的情景特征與應試者在職場中目標語應用的情景特征高度一致。BEC中級聽力部分的情景真實性,主要是體現在聽力題材來自于真實的商務對話,保留了日常口語交際中停頓及會話中的自我等特點,而不是簡單地錄音和閱讀材料。情景主要是商務活動中常遇到的問題,如產品質量投訴、會議的組織安排及協調解決工作中的問題等。寫作部分中,第一部分短文寫作和第二部分商務信函或報告,都明確設置特定情景,如考生作為一名總經理秘書,如何擬定會議通知,并發布給全體職員。寫作情景的設置使寫作任務更有目的性和交互性,更能考查受試者的語言能力。其次,真實情景的設置,限制了受試者的寫作內容,有利于制定統一的評分標準,減少了主觀性對評卷的影響,增加了測試的效度。在口語測試的三部分中,第一部分要求應試者以其真實身份回答面試官的問題,情景真實自然,互動性較強,可稱為熱身練習;第二部分要求受試者就商業話題進行簡要口頭陳述;第三部分為受試者提供了具體情景,明確規定交際任務和目標。2.BEC中級考試的題型分析。BEC中級試題設計新穎,題型多樣化,重視主客觀題的比例,并關注測試的信度和效度。閱讀題型雖然以客觀題為主,但也搭配有多項選擇題與多項選擇完形填空題等多種題型,從不同維度考查應試者的閱讀能力。聽力部分題型包括填空、多選項搭配和多項選擇等主客觀題,相互結合,相得益彰。寫作和口語部分的題型設計主要測試受試者在特定情景下的語言輸出能力,大部分的任務模式設計來源于現實的商務寫作,如記錄電話錄音、改正商務信件中的錯誤表達等,體現了測試的交際真實性。閱讀材料的’五個部分從不同層面考查了受試者的詞匯、句法、篇章結構和閱讀技能;聽力部分考查了受試者的聽記技能、對篇章和細節的理解、語域等語用知識的把握等。BEC中級考試是以篇章為基礎設計的,為受試者提供了翔實的上下文背景,同時結合自身已有的知識結構,進行合理的推斷,體現了測試的交際真實性。二、高職英語測試設計的目的及重點語言測試是教學中不可缺少的組成部分,它們相互影響,相互補充。根據《高等職業教育英語課程教學基本要求(試行)》,高職英語課程教學應以職場交際中的實際應用為目的,培養學生英語的實際應用能力,使其能夠在日常活動與未來工作活動中順利進行基本的口頭和書面交流。因此,高職英語測試的目的和重點是考查學生英語實際交際應用的能力。目前,交際教學法被普遍地應用到高職英語教學中。交際測試能更科學高效地指導學生學習,為其語言交際能力的提高起到了很大的促進作用。劉潤清、韓寶成在《語言測試和他的方法》中指出,交際性語言測試的試卷設計者應在對應試者進行需求調研后,得出其目標行為,界定出應試者在未來的目標場景中應做的事情,在此基礎之上制定考試大綱和內容說明等,只有這樣測試才能夠正確評估并指導教學。語言脫離了語境和情景就失去了具體意義,所以高職英語測試設計者要重視語境和情景的重要性,注重測試任務和文章的真實性。最有效的測試就是將語言置于原生態的真實情景語境中去考查。測試目標的真實性決定了高職英語測試必須是交際性測試,是聽說讀寫技能的綜合處理,評估標準是交際的有效性。三、BEC財神娛樂城ptt的借鑒作用

博奕遊戲推薦:

  • 捕魚機
  • 炫海娛樂城
  • 百家樂算牌
  • 金合發娛樂城
  • Q8娛樂城
  • 九牛娛樂城
  • 贏家娛樂城
  • 線上老虎機
  • 娛樂城推薦
  • 玩運彩投注